As one of the top 10 countries in the world facing climate risk, Thailand has taken proactive and urgent steps to tackle climate change. Climate actions have been integrated and embedded into development plan, national strategies and international frameworks. Thailand has made significant efforts as a signatory party to implement the UNFCCC according to its capabilities and pledged its Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) on voluntary basis to reduce the GHG emissions to the UNFCCC in 2014. Thailand is currently implementing the NAMA action plan and has achieved a reduction of 12 percent from business-as-usual (BAU) in 2016. This is reassuring that Thailand is on a strong track to achieve the voluntary target of a 7% reduction from BAU in 2020, which will lay a solid foundation for post-2020 efforts.
For the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), Thailand pledged in 2015 the targets of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent compared to BAU level by 2030 and up to 25 percent emission reduction subject to adequate and enhanced access to technology development and transfer, financial resources and capacity building support through a balanced and ambitious global agreement under the UNFCCC. The prioritized multiple fronts on adaptation have also been significantly and clearly addressed in its NDC.
On mitigation, in 2017 the Thai Cabinet endorsed “Thailand’s Nationally Determined Contribution Roadmap on Mitigation 2021 – 2030” that identifies a set of key mitigation actions, sectoral and sub-sectoral emission reduction targets and ministerial focal agencies in the energy, transport, waste management and industry sectors. In 2018, the National Committee on Climate Change Policy (NCCC) approved 1) the sectoral mitigation action plans formulated according to the NDC Roadmap by key agencies that outlines key measures, activities and projects, specific emission reduction targets, indicators, main responsible and supporting agencies and budget needs, and 2) the NDC supportive action plan formulated by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), UNFCCC national focal point, aiming to create enabling environment that is crucially needed to facilitate sectoral mitigation actions.
On adaptation, in 2018 the NCCC approved the first “National Adaptation Plan (NAP)” to be used as a framework for implementing climate change adaptation in Thailand nationally and sub-nationally. Its vision is “Thailand is resilient and adapt to the impacts of climate change to achieve sustainable development”. The main principles taken into account in formulating the NAP included Sufficient Economy, Local Wisdom, Sustainable Development, Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA), Community-based adaptation (CbA), Proactive Principle, Resource Efficiency, Good Governance and Public Participation, and Human Rights and Gender Responsiveness. The NAP prioritizes 6 vulnerable sectors namely Water Management, Agriculture and Food Security, Tourism, Public Health, Natural Resources, and Human Settlement and Security with key indicators as follows:
- Water Management: Water security index and Economic loss of life and asset from water-related disaster,
- Agriculture and Food Security: Economic loss of agricultural products per agricultural GDP and Self-sufficient ability to climate-related disaster,
- Tourism: Tourist confidence in climate-related disaster management and Economic loss of tourism industry from climate related disaster,
- Public Health: Death and illness rate from climate change and Economic loss of health impact from climate change,
- Natural resources: Rehabilitation of natural habitats and Climate-endangered on threatened species and,
- Human settlement and security: Number of deaths, missing persons and persons affected by climate-related disaster per 100,000 people and Climate integrated city plans.
However, successful implementation of national climate policies and actions requires a good combination of country ownership and meaningful international support. In order to achieve the NDC goals, essential mechanisms need to be established, for instance, drafting of the national climate change act, facilitating climate finance, developing GHG emission inventory system, etc.
Climate Change Management Coordination Division (CCMC)
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP)